As per the data provided by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), men are more prone to mouth cancer and women are more prone to breast cancer. According to data provided by ICMR, deaths due to lung cancer account for 14.7% of all cancer deaths in males and are the top cause of cancer deaths for men in the country. The deaths due to cervical cancer account for 24.1% and breast cancer account for 16.3% of all female cancer deaths. Hence, breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women.
The estimated number of deaths due to stomach cancer (in both men and women combined) for the year 2014 and accounts for 4.3% of deaths due to all anatomical sites of cancer. Stomach cancer is the sixth leading cause of death in both men and women.
The estimated new (fresh) mouth cancer cases in India for the year 1990 are 45191 and for 2013 are 108076. Mouth cancer has high Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in Indian cancer registries for both males and females and was among the highest in the world.
The Central Government supplements the efforts of the state government for improving healthcare including prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. At present, the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) being implemented under National Health Mission (NHM) for interventions up to the district level includes awareness generation for Cancer prevention, screening, early detection and referral to an appropriate level institution for treatment. The focus is on three areas namely breast, cervical and oral Cancer. Screening guidelines have been provided to State Governments for implementation. Suspected cases are to be referred for confirmatory diagnosis by various tests including histo-pathological biopsy.
The Government of India has approved “Tertiary Care for Cancer” Scheme under National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) in the year 2013-14. Under the said scheme, Government of India will assist to establish/set up 20 State Cancer Institutes (SCI) and 50 Tertiary Care Cancer Centres (TCCC) in different parts of the country. The maximum assistance inclusive of State share for SCI is up to Rs.120 crore and for TCCC is up to Rs.45 crore subject to eligibility as per scheme guidelines and availability of funds.
The treatment for cancer in government hospitals is either free or subsidized. In addition to cancer diagnosis and treatment by the State Governments Health Institutes, the Central Government Institutions such as All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Safdurjung Hospital, Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, PGIMER Chandigarh, JIPMER Puducherry, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, etc. provide facilities for diagnosis and treatment of Cancer.
Oncology in its various aspects has focus in case of new AIIMS and many upgraded institutions under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna (PMSSY). Setting up of National Cancer Institute at Jhajjar (Haryana) and 2nd campus of Chittranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata has also been approved.
Financial assistance to Below Poverty Line (BPL) patients is available under the Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN). Besides this, the Health Minister’s Cancer Patient Fund (HMCPF) within the Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi has been set up in 2009 wherein 27 erstwhile Regional Cancer Centres (RCCs) are provided with revolving funds to provide immediate financial assistance up to Rs.2.00 lakh to BPL cancer patients.